|Born||April 14, 1891
Mhow, Central Provinces, British India(now in Madhya Pradesh)
|Died||December 6, 1956 (aged 65)
|Other names||Baba, Baba Saheb , Bhima , Mooknayak|
|Alma mater||University of Mumbai
University of London
London School of Economics
|Organization||Samata Sainik Dal, Independent Labour Party, Scheduled Castes Federation,Buddhist Society Of India|
|Title||1st Law Minister of India, Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee|
|Political party||Republican Party of India|
|Political movement||Ambedkar(ite) Buddhism|
|Spouse||Ramabai Ambedkar (m. 1906) , Savita Ambedkar (m. 1948)|
|Awards||Bharat Ratna (1990)|
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (Marathi: डॊ.भीमराव रामजी आंबेडकर) (14 April 1889 — 06 December 1956), also known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, political leader, Buddhist activist, philosopher, thinker, anthropologist, historian, orator, prolificwriter, economist, scholar, editor, revolutionary and the revivalist of Buddhism in India. He was also the chief architect of the Indian Constitution. Born into a poor Mahar so called Untouchable family, Ambedkar spent his whole life fighting against social discrimination, the system of Chaturvarna — the Hindu categorization of human society into four varnas — and the Hindu caste system. He is also credited with having sparked the bloodless revolution with his most remarkable and innovativeBuddhist movement. Ambedkar has been honoured with the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian awards.
Overcoming numerous social and financial obstacles, Ambedkar became one of the first so called “untouchables” to obtain a college education in India. Eventually earning law degrees and multiple doctorates for his study and research in law, economics and political science from Columbia University and the London School of Economics, Ambedkar returned home a famous scholar and practiced law for a few years before publishing journals advocating political rights and social freedom for India’s untouchables. He is regarded as a Bodhisattva by Indian Buddhist Bhikkus and by millions of other Buddhists.
Upon India’s independence on August 15, 1947, the new Congress-led government invited Ambedkar to serve as the nation’s first law minister, which he accepted. On August 29, Ambedkar was appointed Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee, charged by the Assembly to write free India’s new Constitution. Ambedkar won great praise from his colleagues and contemporary observers for his drafting work. In this task Ambedkar’s study of sangha practice among early Buddhists and his extensive reading in Buddhist scriptures were to come to his aid. Sangha practice incorporated voting by ballot, rules of debate and precedence and the use of agendas, committees and proposals to conduct business. Sangha practice itself was modelled on the oligarchic system of governance followed by tribal republics of ancient India such as the Shakyas and the Lichchavis. Thus, although Ambedkar used Western models to give his Constitution shape, its spirit was Indian and, indeed, tribal.
The text prepared by Ambedkar provided constitutional guarantees and protections for a wide range of civil liberties for individual citizens, including freedom of religion, the abolition of untouchability and the outlawing of all forms of discrimination Ambedkar argued for extensive economic and social rights for women, and also won the Assembly’s support for introducing a system of reservations of jobs in the civil services, schools and colleges for members of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, a system akin to affirmative action. India’s lawmakers hoped to eradicate the socio-economic inequalities and lack of opportunities for India’s depressed classes through this measure, which had been originally envisioned as temporary on a need basis. The Constitution was adopted on November 26, 1949 by the Constituent Assembly.
A memorial for Ambedkar was established in his Delhi house at 26 Alipur Road. His birthdate is celebrated as a public holiday known as Ambedkar Jayanti or Bhim Jayanti. He was posthumously awarded India’s highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna in 1990. Many public institutions are named in his honour, such as the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open University in Hyderabad; Dr BR Ambedkar University in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh; B. R. Ambedkar Bihar University, Muzaffarpur and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar. The other being Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport in Nagpur, which was otherwise known as Sonegaon Airport. A large official portrait of Ambedkar is on display in the Indian Parliament building.
On the anniversary of his birth (14 April) and death (6 December) and on Dhamma Chakra Pravartan Din, 14th Oct at Nagpur, at least half a million people gather to pay homage to him at his memorial in Mumbai. Thousands of bookshops are set up, and books are sold. His message to his followers was ” Educate!!!, Agitate!!!, Organize!!!”
Jai Bhim is a greeting phrase used by the Buddhist people in India, especially by the ones who converted to Buddhism with or by inspiration of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. Though mostly used by the Dalit converts to Buddhism, it is not religious by its origin and meaning. It was never considered as religious word and has been used by the long-exploited and down-trodden class as a word of greeting as a mark of respect towards their ideologue Bhimrao Ambedkar. Jai Bhim literally means “Victory to Bhim,” i.e., to Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar. The phrase has also been used as formal slogan of Bahujan Samaj Party. It fell into controversy in February 2009 after Dar-ul Uloom Islamic seminary issued a fatwa declaring the slogan “un-Islamic” and “violative of Shariat.”
The term Jai Bhim was coined by Babu L. N. Hardas, a strong follower of Dr. Ambedkar. Many alternatives, such as Jai Rama-pati and Bal Bhim, were considered before deciding on the term Jai Bhim. Babu Hardas promoted this method of greeting with the help of workers of Bhim Vijay Sangh
- INDIA: Dr. Ambedkar Speaks Out (time.com)